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  1. #1

    Mon, 29 Oct 2007 11 PM:44:00
    832
    8

    .

    STEPS OF THE PLANNING PHASE

    (7 -2) . , , , , . , . , .

    1) Recognizing the Problem .
    , , . , .

    2) Define Problem .
    , , . , .
    , . . .
    3) Set System Objectives .
    . , . .
    4) Identify System Constraints .
    . , . , .

    , , .

    5) Coduct a Feasibility Study .
    Feasibility Study . .





    .

    6) Prepare a System Study Proposal .
    , . System Study . System Study Proposal .
    . , , , .
    . , ! ,
    .
    7 ) , ,
    Project Approve or Disapprove the Study
    , , / go /no go decision .

    , :
    1-
    2-
    , . , .
    8) Establish a Control Mechanism .
    , , , . (7-1) . . - person-month . . . .

    , . . , , . . Microsoft Project .

    THE ANALYSIS PHASE

    . , . system analysis .

    , , , (7-4).
    1- Announce the System Study .
    , . . :
    .
    .

    . , .
    2- Organize the Project Team .
    . , , . . .

    - Define Information Needs .
    , , , , . :
    .
    .
    .
    .
    . . , , . data dictionary . .
    4- Performance Criteria System Define.
    , performance criteria , :
    .
    3 .
    .

    , .
    5- Prepare Design Proposal .
    . , , .
    6-
    Approve or Disapprove the Design Project .
    . , , . , .

    THE DESIGN PHASE
    , . system design . , . (7-6) .
    1- Prepare the Detailed System Design .
    . (7-2) .



    /








    , . structured design , .
    (7-7) (7-8) . (7-7) data flow diagram(DFD) , . ().
    (7-8) . , (1-1-1) (1-1-4) , .
    . data dictionary . .
    2- Identify Alternative System Configurations .
    - configurations . , .

    3- Configurations System Evaluate Alternative .
    , , , .
    4- Select the Best Configurations .
    . , . , .
    . .

    5- prepare the Implementation Proposal .
    implementation proposal , . (7-9) .

    1)
    2)
    3)
    4)
    5)
    6)
    1-6 /
    2-6 /
    7)
    1-7 /
    2-7 /
    3-7 /
    8)

    6 - , ,

    Approve or Disapprove the System Implementation
    , . , .

    THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
    - Implementation .

    1- Plan the Implementation .
    , . .

    2- Announce the Implementation .
    . .

    3- Obtain the Hardware Resources .
    . request for proposal (RFP) . (7-11) . (3) . (4) .
    , . . , .
    4- Obtain the Software Resources .
    , . , . .

    () , .

    5- Prepare the Database .
    , . , , .
    database management system , . .
    6- Prepare the Physical Facilities .
    , . , , , , . .
    7- Educate the Participants and Users .
    . . participants , , , . . .

    8- Prepare the Cutover Proposal .
    - cutover. , . .
    9- , ,
    Approve or Disapprove Cutover to the New System
    , , . , .
    10- Cutover to the System
    : , , , . (7-13) .

    1- pilot , . , . , , .
    2- immediate . . .
    3- phased , . , , , , , , . .
    4- parallel . , ( ) .
    ( 7 - 13)
    . .

    The Use Phase
    (14:7).
    1- Use the system:
    .
    2- Audit the system:
    ϡ post implementation review ɡ .
    ɡ .

    3- Maintain the system:
    systems maintenance :
    1. .
    2. ʡ ̡ : .
    3. ǡ ʡ .
    4- Prepare Reengineering Proposal:
    Reengineering ɡ ɡ .
    5- ɡ
    Approval or Disapproval the Reengineering of the System
    ǡ ( ) .

    PUTTING THE SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE IN PERSPECTIVE
    ȡ .

    ݡ ǡ .

    .

    ǡ ɡ rapid application development (RAD) BPR.

    PROTOTYPING
    Prototype ɡ ( prototyping)

    types of prototypes:
    : type 1 prototype type 2 prototype .

    : (15:7) :

    1) : .
    2) : ʡ ɡ Integrated application generator (( ѡ ʡ ʡ - prototype toolkit ɡ .
    (15:7) .
    3) ǡ ǡ ɡ ߡ .
    4) .

    .
    : (16:7) :
    4) : .
    5) : .
    6) : ǡ ɡ .
    7) .

    Appearance .

    Prototyping and the system Development Life Cycle

    ɡ : ʡ .
    The Attraction of Prototyping
    :

    (16:7) .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    Potential Pitfalls of Prototyping
    ѡ :
    ɡ ޡ " quick and dirty" .
    .
    .
    ѡ .

    Applications The Are Good Prospects for prototyping
    :
    ʡ .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .
    .

    RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
    ǡ Rapid application development (RAD) James Martin ȡ .
    ʡ ʡ ʡ information engineering (IE) .
    (17:7) ( ) ( ) ǡ ǡ ʡ business area analysis (BAA) ǡ .

    The Essential Ingredients of RAD
    : ɡ ϡ ʡ .
    : ɡ ǡ experimenter ɡ early adaptors ɡ .
    (17:7) .
    : ɡ ʡ ϡ ɡ skilled with advanced tools (SWAT) team.
    :
    RAD life cycle :
    (1) ʡ (2) (3) ϡ (4) ɡ .
    : .
    ɡ SQL, FOCUS, Natural.

    BUSINESS PROCESS REDESIGN (BPR)
    Business process redesign (BPR) business process reengineering .

    :
    : ɡ legacy systems ǡ .
    : ɡ .
    ȡ ( three Rs reverse engineering restructuring reengineering .
    Reverse Engineering:
    ǡ .

    reverse engineering ǡ ϡ .
    ( ) .
    .
    (18:7) .
    ء functionality -

    Restructuring:
    Restructuring .
    ɡ ɡ ɡ ̡ (19:7) - .

    Reengineering:
    Reengineering " " ɡ forward engineering (20:7) .
    (20:7) .
    selection of the BPR Components
    (the three Rs) ɡ ɡ (21:7) functional quality technical quality .
    (21:7) .
    ɡ ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ . ɡ .

    ɡ

    PUTTING SLC, PROTOTYPING, and RAD PERSPECTIVE
    ɡ ޡ ǡ ȡ ȡ ɡ .
    .
    ȡ .

    ʡ ѡ ɡ .

    ȡ BPR . BPR



    .

  2. #2

    Mon, 29 Oct 2007 11 PM:44:00
    832
    8

    .. . .

    .

    (system) ʡ ѡ .... ɡ . ϡ . (hardware) (software) data)) (communications) ɡ .

    . System analysis:

    .
    ( analysis) :
    . . . . к .
    . .
    ( ):
    1- Data .
    2- Processes.
    3- Information Flow in the System
    :
    ɡ ʡ :
    1- .
    2- .
    :
    1- ( ) .
    2- .
    3- .
    4- .
    .

    : system design

    .

    ء :
    1- ( ɡ ϡ ڡ .. ) .
    2- ( ) . .
    3- end users , .
    4- .
    :
    . :
    1- .
    2- .
    3- .
    4- 3 .
    5- .
    :
    1-
    2-
    3-
    4- ( ) .
    :
    1- ( ʡ ӡ )
    2- ( )
    3- ( ).
    :
    1- .
    2- . .
    3- . ѡ .
    .
    4- ( ) Problem Solver .
    :
    1. Interviews
    2. Questionnaires
    3. Observation
    4.
    Workshops, group discussions, formal sessions and Brain storm sessions
    5. Documents Analysis
    6. :e-mail .
    7. Analysis by participation :
    . analyzing peoples roles ( ) .
    . analyzing interaction .
    . analyzing location .
    . Prototype Cost benefit analysis .
    :
    1- .
    2- ѡ ʿ
    (Tangible ) / / / ǡ :
    1. .
    2. .
    3. .
    4. .
    5. ( ʡ ɡ ) .
    6. .. .
    ( intangible ) ڿ ɿ
    / payback method . .
    System analysis
    . :
    : Automation Options
    : .
    :
    1- .
    2- .
    3- .
    4- .
    5- .
    : Shelf list analysis
    : ( ) .
    :
    1- ( ݅ )
    2- .
    3- ( ).
    4- .
    : Retrospective Plan for automation : .
    :
    1- ( ʡ ʡ 15 ɡ ..)
    2- .
    3- .
    4- .
    5- .
    6- .
    7- .
    : Contract Negotiations Ʌ
    : . :
    1- .
    2-
    3-
    4-
    5- .
    : ( ) System implementation
    : .
    :
    1- ( ) ( ) .
    2- ( / / ).
    3- / .
    4- .
    5- .
    6- .
    7- Pioll-project ( / / ..).
    8- (7).
    9- .
    10- / /.
    :
    1- . ɡ / .
    2- .
    3- ( ) in-house database.
    4- .
    5- turnkey systems
    6- .











    . .

    ɡ ǡ ǡ ǡ . (Records) (File) . . ɡ . .
    ʡ . ɡ . .
    1. (Bit) (Byte). ȡ (1 0) (4642) (00101) . (00101110) ɡ (Characters) ()
    . ѡ (0,1) . ȡ (64 KB) (65536) ʡ (KB) (1024) .
    t (Amer) :
    01000001= A
    01001101= m
    01000101= e
    r= 01010010
    () :
    01010101 =
    01001000 =
    01001100 =
    01010110 =

    ( ) ɡ ݡ ݡ (Characters )
    2. (Field) . ֡ ʡ ǡ . . ɡ (ݡ ... ) ȡ . ( ) ( ) .
    3. (Record) . ɡ ʡ ɡ (Index) (Catalog) (Personnel) ... . ɡ :
    ȡ : 654302 ( )
    - : ( )
    - ȡ : ʡ ( )
    - ѡ : ɡ ȡ 1984 : . .. 7655 ( )
    ޡ : 320 ɡ . ( )
    ʡ : /// // //// ( )
    ( ) (Record)
    (Record) . ɡ ( ) .
    4. (Files) . ʡ
    ɡ ɡ ... .










    :
    1. (individual databases) . . / (Popular databases management software). . .
    (Personal Information Management/ PIMs ) , ݡ ݡ .
    2. (Shared Databases) . ǡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ɡ (Server ) (Mainframe) . (LAN) . (Database Administrator/ DBA) ɡ ɡ .
    3. (Distributed Databases) . ȡ ʡ ɡ (Client/ Server Network). . ʡ ڡ .
    4. (Public Databases) . . ɡ ɡ (Browser) / (Web) ʡ . . . ɡ Yahoo AltaVista Amazon. ɡ ɡ Dialog Ebsco
    :
    1. (Bibliographic Databases) . ɡ ʡ . (Text) . (ERIC) ɡ (MEDLINE) ɡ (AGRICOLA) ɡ ɡ . . ɡ .
    2. (Reference Databases) . ǡ ݡ .
    3. (Numeric & Statistical Databases) . . ɡ (200) . .
    4. (Full-text Databases) . ޡ ǡ ݡ ѡ ʡ . ѡ ɡ .
    ݡ ǡ .
    ʡ ɡ .
    (database management system) ʡ ȡ ѡ .










    . .

    ϡ ɡ ɡ . . ϡ . ѡ ɡ ȡ ɡ . ɡ .
    ɡ . . ʡ . ʡ ʡ ɡ .
    :
    ɡ ɡ ʡ ʡ .
    . ǡ ڡ ǡ ɡ . . ɡ ȡ . ɡ .
    :
    ɡ :
    1- ʡ . .
    2- .
    ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ˡ ɡ hypermedia .

    3- ʡ . ǡ (FTP) ʡ ͡ .
    4- ɡ
    5- .
    6- ɡ ӡ .
    :
    :
    1-
    2-
    3-
    4-
    5- ʡ ʡ
    6- . .
    7- .
    8- ѡ .
    :
    ǡ . ѡ .
    . .
    :
    1- ʡ ʡ
    2- Dž
    3- Pass word ߡ " "
    :
    ʡ ʡ ڡ . ɡ . ʡ :
    1-
    2- . ̡ .
    3- ȡ ޡ ʡ .
    4- .
    5- . ա . . ɡ .
    . .
    6- .
    ɡ ɡ . ϡ .

    ɡ ɡ .
    :
    1- .
    2- .
    3- .
    4- .
    5- .
    6- .
    7- .
    8- .
    9- ( OCLC)
    10-
    11- .
    12- .
    13- .
    ȡ . ɡ .

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