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  1. #1

    Thu, 21 Dec 2006 12 PM:31:00
    272
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    Types of Information Systems





    :
    Information systems serve each level organizational hierarchy
    : ʡ . .
    . :
    - ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ .
    - ʡ ǡ :
    1. leveloperational ɡ
    2. levelknowledge
    3. management level
    4. strategic level ǡ
    . :
    ɡ ء ɡ ɡ :
    1. () transaction processing systems ɡ ǡ ѡ ʡ . ɡ track the flow of thedaily routine transactions that are necessary to conduct business..
    2. office systems ʡ ɡ calendars
    3. knowledge worksystems ɡ ʡ ʡ ɡ ޡ .
    4. decision-support systems ̡ ͡ .
    5. management informationsystems. ʡ ݡ ɡ
    6. executive support systems . ʡ ʡ .

    : /
    Transaction processing systems / TPS
    ʡ ɡ :
    . Sales/marketing systems. ɡ : ʡ ޡ ѡ .
    order information systems marketresearch systems sales commission systems
    . Manufacturing/production systems: scheduling purchasing shipping/receiving engineering operations functions . : machine control systems purchase order systems quality control systems
    . Finance/accounting systems: budgeting general ledger billing cost accounting functions. : accounts receivable/payable systems funds management systems general ledgersystems
    . Human resource systems personnel records benefits compensation labor relations training payroll functions. / systems employeerecords benefit systems systems compensation career path systems
    . . . : admissions course records Alumni....

    :
    Transaction processing systems basicactivities
    . ɡ . Data entry Transactionprocessing Database maintenance Document and report generation Inquiry processing
    1. Data entry: . ߡ point-of-sale terminal Optical scanning Bar codes Credit card readers ϡ . . .
    2. Transaction processing: : Batch processing ɡ . Real-time processing Online processing ɡ
    3. Database maintenance: ɡ ǡ . . ɡ .
    4. Document and reportgeneration: ѡ Purchase orders Paychecks and sales receipts. Payrollregister, or edit reports
    5. Inquiry processing : ʡ ʡ ʡ ȡ Database management querylanguages ϡ . ʡ ϡ .

    :
    Other types of Information systems
    1. Transaction processing systems .
    2.
    Knowledge Work Systems/ KWS

    - :






    Inputs: Design specs

    Processing: Modeling

    Outputs: Designs graphics
    Users: Technical staff andprofessionals
    - : Engineering work station
    3. () Office Automation Systems
    - Paperless Office
    -




    Redesign of workflow

    - Integrated software

    -




    Ergonomicdesign

    - ޡ



    Bright, cheerful work space

    4.



    Management Information Systems

    - Inputs : High volume data

    - Processing: Simple models
    - Outputs: Summary reports
    - Users: Middle managers
    : Annual budgeting
    - Structured andsemi-structured decisions
    -




    Report control orientation

    -



    Past and present data

    -



    Internalorientation

    -



    Lengthy design process

    5. Decision Support Systems/DSS

    -
    :
    :
    :
    :
    -
    -
    - ɡ ѡ
    -
    -




    TPS MIS external sources current stock prices productprices of competitors

    6.



    Excusive SupportSystems/ESS

    -

    :




    aggregate data

    : Interactive

    :




    Projections

    : 5-



    year operating plan :

    -

    -




    incorporate ɡ MIS DSS

    - ɡ ѡ .

    -

    :
    Information systems serving each of the major functional areas of abusiness.
    ɡ ǡ :
    1. marketinginformation systems Sales and marketinginformation systems
    Customer relationmanagement Interactive marketing Sales forceautomation. :
    . help the firmidentify customers for the organization's products and services.
    . ѡ ڡ help develop, promote, sell, and provide ongoing customer support for the firm'sproducts and services.
    . order processing market analysis pricing analysis sales trendforecasting
    2. Manufacturing and productioninformation systems Productionoperations :
    . ء ̡ provide information for planning, product development, production or service scheduling
    ȝ. controlling the flow of products and services
    . ̡ machine control, CAD, production planning, and facilities location.
    2. Human resources inf. Systems
    Ý. maintain employee records; track employee skills, job performance
    ȝ. support planning foremployeecompensation, including pensions and benefits, legal and regulatoryrequirements
    . training and development, careerpathing
    . human resources planning
    4. Finance and accounting information systems
    Ý. ɡ track the organization's financialassets and fund flows
    . ɡ ɡ accounts receivable, portfolio analysis, budgeting, and profit planning.
    : Accounting Finance

    : ޡ
    Marketing InformationSystems & and Interactive Marketing
    ء ɡ . ɡ . . .
    . ʡ ʡ Interactive marketing ɡ ޡ . Sales force automation . ̡ ѡ ʡ ɡ .
    Interactive marketing:
    ޡ ʡ ʡ ʡ Two-way transaction ǡ . ɡ .
    . . Chat and discussion groups Web forms andquestionnaires . ɡ ɡ .

    :
    Interrelations between systems
    ɡ ɡ ɡ ʡ .
    () ɡ ʡ . . .

    : :
    enterprise systems: benefits and challengesof implementing
    ( ) :
    - Enterprise systems Enterprise Resource Planning/ ERP .
    - Enterprise software model and automates manybusiness process ʡ ɡ
    - Information can flow throughout the firm ڡ ɡ ɡ
    :
    :
    1. : One organization
    2. () ϡ
    3. ϡ
    4. ʡ ̡ ڡ
    :
    :
    1. Difficult to build. ɡ ѡ
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8. ɡ
    (23)

    :
    supplychain management
    - Enterprise applications: Supply chain management Collaborativecommerce Industrial networks Customerrelation management .
    Supply chainmanagement supply chainmanagement ʡ ڡ . ɡ ʡ ȡ .
    ʡ ϡ ɡ ɡ .
    ڡ ڡ ۡ ϡ ϡ ɡ : ѡ ɡ ϡ ڡ ʡ : ̡ . ɡ ӡ ()

    : ɡ ɡ
    Collaborativecommerce, Private industrial networks & Customer relationshipmanagement
    Collaborative commerce:
    ѡ ɡ .
    ȡ ϡ ̡ ա . .
    . .
    Private industrialnetworks:
    - Interorganizational business processes Platform . Transorganizationalbusiness process .
    - :
    1. ̡ ޡ ϡ
    2.
    3. ʡ ʡ
    Customer relationship management:
    . ʡ ʡ ޡ .
    ɡ ݡ

    :
    Role of knowledge management systems in theenterprise
    1. Creating knowledge : ʡ ʡ ʡ ޡ .
    2. Discovering and codifying knowledge Artificial intelligence systems ء ʡ ʡ . DDS ɡ
    3. Sharing knowledge ϡ ɡ ɡ
    4. Distributing knowledge : ʡ ɡ .

    :
    Managers should pay attention to business processes andintegrate them
    .
    -Business processes refer to themanner in which work is organized, coordinated, and focused to produce avaluable product to services.
    - ϡ ʡ . .
    -Business processes are concrete workflows of material, information, and knowledge, and they also represent unique ways in which organizationscoordinate work, information, and knowledge, and the ways in which managementchoose to coordinate work.
    - ǡ ɡ Although eachof the major business functions has its own set of business processes, manyother business processes are cross-functional, such as fulfilling an order.
    - ʡ ѡ ʡ .-Information systems can help organizations achieve great efficienciesby automating parts of these processes or by helping organizations rethink andstreamline these processes, especially those for customer relationshipmanagement and supply chain management.
    - ɡ . Customer relationship management uses information systems tocoordinate all of the business processes surrounding firms interactions withits customers.-
    - ڡ . ɡ ޡ ɡ ɡ ̡ Supply chain management is the closelinkage of activities involved in buying, making, and moving a product. Information systems make supply chain management more efficient by helpingcompanies coordinate, schedule, and control procurement, production, inventorymanagement, and delivery of products and services to customers.

    :
    thebenefits of using inf. Systems to support supply chain management andcollaborated commerce
    1. ʡ .
    Enterprise systems and industrial networks promise efficienciesfrom better coordination of both internal and external business processes.
    2. ɡ ɡ
    Enterprise systems can help create a uniform organization in whicheveryone uses similar processes and information, and measures their work interms of organization-wide performance standards.
    3.

    An enterprisesystem could supply management with better data about business processes andoverall organizational performance.
    4. () ɡ

    . ʡ ̡ ɡ
    Enterprise systems featurea single information technology platform where data definitions are standardizedacross the organization. The coordination of sales, production, finance, andlogistics processes provided by enterprise systems helps organizations respondrapidly to customer demands.
    5. . . ɡ .

    The reality is that firm and industry-wide systems are very difficultto implement successfully. They require extensive organizational change, usecomplicated technologies, and require large up-front costs for long-termbenefits that are difficult to quantify in advance.
    - . .
    Once implemented, enterprise systemsare very difficult to change. Management vision and foresight are required totake a firm and industry wide view of problems and to find solutions thatrealize strategic value from the investment.

    :
    Types of Information Systems: specialization
    . ߡ Marketing InformationSystems/MkIS Geographic Information Systems/GIS Accounting Information Systems ɡ Library Management Systems/LMS Computer Information Systems/GIS

    1. MarketingInformation Systems/MkIS ء a setof methods and procedures for planning, analyzing and presenting informationnecessary for marketing decisions. sales activities .
    ڡ ɡ ޡ ʡ
    MkIS is but a structured approach forgathering, processing and storing information needed by the marketing managerfor decision-making ɡ .
    ȡ ߡ .
    . ʡ .

    2. Geographic Information Systems/GIS ɡ ɡ ɡ ʡ ɡ .
    GIS is a type of computer system made ofhardware, software, and data that allows the mapping of spatially related layersthat have a common geographic component.
    ɡ . ʡ . layering demographic data ɡ .
    ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ . ɡ ɡ ǡ ɡ ȡ .
    3. AccountingInformation Systems/AIS ǡ .
    ʡ .
    ɡ ʡ . ɡ ɡ Accounting professionals should be able toapply productivity improvement software, such as spreadsheets andaccounting-specific software, and be able to interpret, integrate, and implementinformation technology.
    ڡ .
    The Accounting Information Systems/AIS major joins together theskill sets of tow areas experiencing rapid growth and change, accounting andinformation technology.
    e. Commerce direct business-to-business communication paperless working processes and manyother technology-intensive innovations .
    . .
    4. Library ManagementSystems/LMS : Library Information Science/LIS . ɡ . : ɡ ɡ () ɡ ɡ .
    ǡ . :

    1. .
    2. ǡ
    3. .
    4. ɡ ɡ
    5. ѡ ʡ .
    6.
    7. /ȡ ɡ
    8. ȡ
    9.
    10.

    5. Computer InformationSystems/CIS
    ǡ . CIS ɡ ӡ .
    ɡ several mathematical courses
    probability theory, mathematical statistics, discrete mathematics, decision science, algorithms and their practical uses, computer languages,COBOL ...




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  2. #2

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