1 4 123 ...
1 10 40

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  1. #1

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    ( )


    2008



    1 15 - microeconomic
    ( ) ...

    : demand 4

    . the law of demand
    determinats of demand
    elasticity

    ( )

    . - utility theory

    defination of
    utility & total utility & characteristics of total utility
    marginal utility & characteristics of marginal utiliy
    relation of utility total - marginal

    .

    principle of diminishing marginal utility


    finding the point of maximum utility





    . ( ) indifferance curve


    defination
    characteristics
    budget constraints

    utility maximization

    4






    ( )

  2. #2

    Sat, 15 Mar 2008 12 PM:57:10
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    " "
    master ; Tue, 12 Aug 2008 07 AM:38:43

  3. #3

    Tue, 13 Nov 2007 12 PM:41:00
    49
    0

    ima

  4. #4

    Fri, 15 Feb 2008 01 PM:02:42
    /
    66
    8

    Smile .

    / mso_2006

    .



    CPA







    /

  5. #5

    Fri, 13 Jul 2007 03 PM:40:13
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    1
    0

    self study




  6. #6

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    ( ) demand



    # Law of demand:
    - Price of product is inversely related to quantity demanded of that same product.
    - .

    ....
    Movement along demand curve occurs only when price of good changes and other determinants of demand remain unchanged. Called change in quantity demand
    ( ) .
    Movement (shift ) of demand curve .. occurs only when other determinants of demand other than price changes. Called change in demand.
    .

    # Determinants of demand:
    ( )
    1. Consumer income.

    normal good cloths
    purchase increase as income increase
    inferior good .
    purchase decrease as income increase

    2. Prices of related goods.
    .
    substitute good ....
    Goods that can be used instead of each other

    price increase in one will generate an increase in the demand of other

    complementary goods ...
    Goods that can used together

    price increase in one will result in a decrease in the demand of other

    3. Consumer expectation.


    ... .
    If people think that the price of land will increase in future in order to avoid the high price they increase the demand and Vic versa.

    4. Consumer tastes and preference.
    .

    5. Number of consumer.






    The movement along demand curve from one price quantity combination to another is called
    A. change in demand
    B. shift in demand curve.
    C. Change in quantity demand.
    D. Increase in demand.

    ( )...
    c

  7. #7

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    # Elasticity ..
    ....

    1. Price elastic of demand
    .
    2. Cross elastic of demand
    .
    3. Income elastic of demand
    .


    .....

    the percentage method
    Percentage change in quantity demand
    = -------------------------------------------------
    Percentage change in price
    ( )

    the midpoint or arc method
    2 / ( Q1+ q2 ) - (Q2-q1)
    = ---------------------------------------------------
    ( P1-p2 ) - (p1+ p2) / 2

    ....

    .



    = = 1
    elastic inelastic perfect inelastic
    Unitary elastic

    price quantity demand


    responsive



    ,
    .
    .

    Elastic and total revenue
    .....
    Total revenue = price * quantity
    = *



    Unitary = 1 Inelastic = less than one Elastic =more than one
    TR unchanged T R increase T R decrease Prices increase
    TR unchanged T R decrease T R increase Prices decrease


    ...


    If elasticity of demand for a normal good is expected to be 2.5 a 10 % reduction in its price would cause
    a. total revenue to fall by 10 %.
    b. total revenue to fall by 25 %
    c. quantity demand to rise by 25 %
    d . Demand to decrease by 10 %.
    =
    2.5 = 10 % ( = 25 % ) c



    Cross elasticity of demand
    ....
    Y % ^ Q
    = ---------------------------------------
    X % ^ P

    = POSITIVE ( SUBSTITUTE ) X Y .
    = NEGATIVE ( COMPLEMENTARY ) .

  8. #8

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    ( )

  9. #9

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    2/4/2008

    . Utility theory

    consumer behavior downward sloping

    Utility: benefit derived by individual from product or service
    : .

    numerical context
    15 ( ).
    ....
    Marginal utility: additional benefit derived from obtaining one more unites.
    : .
    Total utility : is the sum of marginal utility amounts for all units consumed.
    : .


    (1)
    MU TU
    3 3 1
    6 9 2
    9 18 3
    8 26 4
    5 31 5
    1 32 6
    0 32 7
    -2 30 8
    -3 27 9

    ...
    - .
    - .
    - ( = )
    ...Point of maximum utility

    # (MU= ) .

    ( ) ( ǡ ) . ( ). . :


    ..
    Principle of diminishing marginal utility.

    ...
    :
    =10 X = 1 Y= 2:
    consumer s equilibrium position
    .
    Q MUX MUX / PX MUY MUY / PY
    1 10
    24
    2 8 10
    3 7 18
    4 6 16
    5 5 12
    6 4 6
    7 3 4
    :
    :
    1- :
    1) Income = PXQX + PYQX
    ( (I) (X Y)
    2- :
    2) (MUX\PX) = (MUY\PY)
    X X = Y Y
    ( )
    ( marginal utility per dollar )
    additional unit divided by price
    .

    The law of diminishing marginal utility states that
    a. marginal utility will decline as a consumer acquires additional unit of product.
    b. total utility will decline as a consumer acquires additional unit of product .
    c. decline utils cause the demand cure to slope upward.
    d. consumer wants diminish with the passage of time.
    a.

    ...
    In the theory of demand the marginal utility per dollar of a product
    a. increase when consumption expanded
    b. decrease when consumption expanded.
    c. explains why short run supply curve upward sloping.
    d. increase as more units of variable input are added to the production process.
    c d
    expanded ( b.





  10. #10

    Fri, 29 Dec 2006 09 AM:05:19
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    Market equilibriums:

    Is defined as a point where demand curve intersect with the supply curve.

    :

    ( ) ( ) .

    The supply curve OR the demand curve shifts

    Event Equilibrium price Equilibrium quantity
    Supply increase Decrease Increase
    Supply decrease Increase Decrease
    Demand increase Increase Increase
    Demand decrease Decrease Decrease

    ( ) .

    The supply curve AND the demand curve shifts.

    Supply shift outward
    (To the right) Supply shift inward
    (To the left)
    Demand shift outward
    (to the right) Price undetermined
    Quantity increase Price increase
    Quantity undetermined
    Demand shifts inward
    ( to the left ) Price decrease
    Quantity undetermined Price undetermined
    Quantity decrease

    - ( ) .



    ..

    Price fixing:
    Price fixing occurs when an artificial price is set in the market.

    .

    ......
    a. Price ceiling:
    .

    ....
    #A price ceiling occurs when a maximum price is set for a product and it set below the current market equilibrium price.
    ( )
    # when a price ceiling is set the decrease in market price cause a market shortage
    #

    .
    ....
    Ex: rent control.


    B. Price floor:
    .

    #a Price floor is a minimum price is set for a product and it s above market equilibrium .
    # .
    # in these cases an increase in price of good will cause a market surplus .
    # .

    ,
    ..... .
    Ex : wage ,

: 1 (0 1 )

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